We are interested in studying physical and chemical reactions in multi-dimensional approaches to illustrate reactions in a single molecule/particle level. In situ dynamics and nested structural evolution in solution phase reaction and on surfaces/interfaces are studied.  
4D SINGLE

  3D SINGLE (Structural Identification of Nanocrystals by Graphene Liquid Cell Electron Microscopy) is a new method to reconstruct 3D atomic structures of individual nanoparticles in their native solution. It is a combination of high and microscopic methods from soft and hard matter imaging: graphene liquid cell high-resolution TEM, aberration-corrected microscopy, and ab initio reconstruction algorithm. Since it works for individual particles, heterogeneous ensembles of soft and hard colloidal materials including nanocrystals and proteins can be analyzed particle-by-particle by using SINGLE.

Single Molecule Electron Microscopy in Liquid

  The recent development of liquid cell TEM provides an opportunity to achieve atomic resolution in reactions occurring in a liquid. We utilize these opportunities to picture in situ chemical reactions at the atomic/molecular resolution. Topics include protein-protein interactions, protein folding, and dynamics. Ultimately, we hope to correlate in situ studies with 3D structural information obtained from 3D SINGLE.

Growth and Interactions

  Crystallization processes have been subject for active research with various approaches. We try to address questions that remain in atomic scale. By using liquid phase TEM, often times correlated with optical microscopy, growth trajectories of individual colloidal particles are identified. We try to understand those individual behaviors within our understanding based on ensemble approaches and further figure out information only possible in a single particle level. 

Physics at Interfaces

  Surface and interface are unique space that serves diverse chemical reactions in liquid and solid phases: catalytic reactions, heterostructure formation, molecular assembly etc. We try to develop chemical ways to control surfaces/interfaces of functional materials and understand such reactions in great details in 3D and temporal resolution.